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The Black Africans Who Ruled Europe From 711 To 1789

The Spanish occupation by the Moors began in 711 AD when an African army, under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from northern Africa and invaded the Iberian peninsula. A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way: ”The reins of their horses were as fire, their faces […]